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And yet the feeling persists that, as far as the evolution of British culture is concerned, the Edwardian period was something of an interregnum, or pause for breath. Writers on Edwardian literary culture, in particular, often give the impression of having bitten off rather less than they can chew. Nor does Daly apparently see any contradiction in attacking modernist hegemony while implicitly accepting the modernist view of the Edwardians as so many snobs, hacks, and materialists. Where the Edwardians are concerned, it seems that no amount of critical neglect is worth bothering about.

One way would be to argue for the inclusion of the Edwardians in the roster of early twentieth-century literary radicalism. Jefferson Hunter, in his excellent book on the period, suggests something of the sort in respect of the short story, which, he argues, was the scene of significant formal experimentation during the Edwardian years.

Essentially an elaboration of the dramatic monologue, the form was widely utilized by Edwardian writers, and examples of it are to be found in mainstream as well as high-brow literary magazines of the day. According to Hunter, the attraction of the frame-tale lay in its amenability to psychological focalization, and in the general air of relativism that hung about it.

Modernist Prose and Fiction

Yet, there is a danger here in seeking to narrativize the achievements of the Edwardians by reference to the ideas of their modernist successors. To value the frame-tale largely because of its family resemblance to the higher emanations of modernist fictional practice is to risk further reinforcing the belief that modernism is the superordinate cultural discourse of modernity. Modernism, once again, stands as the measure by which we judge the worth of all writing.

Doing so means setting aside the lenses modernism fashions for us and refusing the standards of evaluation it proposes. To stay with the frame-tale for a moment, instead of seeking to couple it to the canonical modernist text, we might instead consider its interest in orality and verbal performance as signifying a quite different, but nonetheless equally telling, response to the conditions of modernity.

Crucially, the function of orality in the work of these writers is not nostalgic or backward looking: modernism may want us to view it that way, of course which is one reason why there is rarely any room at the modernist salon for Kipling , but Benjamin implies that access to orality might bespeak an alternative, oppressed, resistant strain of cultural expression that does not regard as either inevitable or triumphant the seemingly inevitable triumph of reason and capital.

This matters to Jameson because it suggests that romance, far from fantasizing an escape from the world, seeks the exchange of an earthly reality for an earthly paradise; and it is this grounding in the here and now that gives the romance its covert political function. He argues that where realism begins as an exhilarating and liberating mode of expression, it is, by the end of the nineteenth century, so reified that is, systematized and subjected to reproduction that it becomes part of the oppressive entailment of reason and capital to which it was once so potent a foil.

Under these conditions, Jameson proposes, romance re-emerges to take up the call of Utopian desire and enact the symbolic transformation of everyday life:. Let Scott, Balzac, and Dreiser serve as the non-chronological markers of the emergence of realism in its modern form; these first great realisms are characterized by a fundamental and exhilarating heterogeneity in their raw materials and by a corresponding versatility in their narrative apparatus.

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In such moments, a generic confinement to the existent has a paradoxically liberating effect on the registers of the text, and releases a set of heterogeneous historical perspectives—the past for Scott, the future for Balzac, the process of commodification for Dreiser—normally felt to be inconsistent with a focus on the historical present. It is in the context of the gradual reification of realism in late capitalism that romance once again comes to be felt as the place of narrative heterogeneity and of freedom from that reality principle to which a now oppressive realistic representation is the hostage.

Romance now again seems to offer the possibility of sensing other historical rhythms, and of demonic or Utopian transformations of a real now unshakeably set in place. Nor is it mere escapism.

Modernism and Market Fantasy

Rather, its very heterogeneity expresses a wish to transform, rather than succumb to, the relentless reification of the real entailed in the high-realist project. If we can do that, then what are customarily considered deficits in Edwardian conceptions of the novel and short story may come to be seen instead as the entailments of a different sort of response to the conditions of modernity, and perhaps, even, an active form of resistance to an emergent, proto-modernist aesthetic fetishization of fragmentation and alienation.

What, even, of Virginia Woolf, with whom we began? Ardis, Ann L. Modernism and Cultural Conflict, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Awadalla, Maggie, and Paul March-Russell, eds. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Benjamin, Walter. Harry Zohn. Hannah Arendt. London: Fontana, Cooper, John Xiros. Modernism and the Culture of Market Society.

Daly, Nicholas. Eagleton, Mary. Clare Hanson. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan, Einhaus, Ann-Marie. Felski, Rita. The Gender of Modernity. Gerlach, John. Hanson, Clare.

Bibliographic Information

Short Stories and Short Fictions, Basingstoke: Macmillan, Harris, Wendell V. Charles E. Poetry present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, Secession ; exile-American magazine published in various European cities. Time and Tide [in its first phase it was a little magazine].

One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship.

This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on little magazines. A state-of-the-art article on little magazines.

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The author discusses the development of a little-magazine culture in America from the s to the late s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for publication. An anthology of what Baker himself calls "the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war" v. His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines.

Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though see especially Clarke ; Ferrall a; Morrisson , ; Thacker Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form.

This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop and Rainey Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced. Benstock and Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos mainly European modernist ones.

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos and by Martin A. Kayman on Pound and imagism. An important overview of little magazines from the s to the s. Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism in this he argues against Bennett's postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism.

An additional but by far not as comprehensive reference to Sader, ed. Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. He points out that the Calendar served as model for F. Leavis's Scrutiny a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called "Scrutinies" actually gave Leavis's magazine its name. Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today.

A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism depended on little magazines as an outlet.

An important overview of little magazines of the s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time a turn from "personal politics" to "an individualistic literary practice", 1.

He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her see also Barash ; Ferrall a; Morrisson , ; Thacker A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and political positions The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner. Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field.

An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this. Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the "qualified reader" Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury see also Kaufmann on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership.

A very critical review of British little magazines. Dupee criticises their apolitical stance which is not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity.


He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism.

Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too.

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He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound see also Barash ; Clarke ; Morrisson , ; Thacker Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin he argues that A.

Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only.